В помощь изучающим английский язык

                         TENSES

PRESENT SIMPLE

 

I/you/we/they work. He/she/it works.

I don’t work. He doesn’t work.

Do you work? Does he work?

 

1. Обычная ситуация или состояние.

He lives in London.

2. Универсальная правда.

Water boils at 100* C

3. Повторяющееся действие.

He often comes to school late.

4. Действие в ближайшем будущем, по расписанию.

The race starts at 7.00

5. Будущее действие в придаточных предложениях времени или условия. If the weather is rainy we shall stay at home.

6. Комментарии. The car approaches the bridge.

Every day/week/month, usually, sometimes, always, rarely, never, often, in the morning, evening, afternoon, at night, on Mondays, seldom

 

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

 

I am working. You/we/they are working. He/she/it is working.

I’m not working. You aren’t working. He isn’t working.

Am I working? Are you working? Is he working?

1. Действие, которое происходит в данный момент.

The baby is sleeping at the moment.

2. Действие, которое происходит в данный период времени.

She is living in Paris this week.

3. Изменяющая сяситуация.

Mary is putting on weight.

4. Негативная оценка, раздражение, критика.

He’s always asking stupid questions.

5. Запланированное действие в ближайшем будущем.

I’m seeing Alice tonight.

Now, at the moment, at present, nowadays, today, still

 

PRESENT PERFECT

 

I/you/we/they have worked. He/she/it has worked.

I haven’t worked. He hasn’t worked.

Have I worked? Has he worked?

 

1. Действие, которое недавно завершилось.

He has just cut the grass.

2. Действие в прошлом, которое связанно с настоящим.

He has sold the car.

3. Несвязанное с настоящим прошедшее действие, если важен факт, а не время когда действие произошло.

I’ve already been to London.

4. Личный опыт.

I have learnt a lot this year.

5. Упор на число.

He has read three novels this week.

6. Действие началось в прошлом и длилось по настоящий момент.

I haven’t seen him for two years.

Just, ever, never, already, yet, so far, recently, lately, today, this week/month, since, for

 

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

 

I/you/we/they have been working. He/she/it has been working.

I haven’t been working. He hasn’t been working.

Have you been working? Has he been working?

 

1. Действие, которое началось в прошлом и длилось по настоящий момент или длиться по настоящий момент.

He has been washing his bike for an hour

2. Длительное действие в прошлом, связанное с настоящим.

My granny has been watering the lawn. The grass is wet.

3. Для выражения злости, раздражительности.

Someone has been using my computer.

Since, for

 

PAST SIMPLE

 

I worked.

I didn’t work.

Did I work?

 

1. Последовательные действия в прошлом.

He got into his car, started the engine and drove off.

2. Обычное действие или состояние.

He walked to work every day.

3. Факт из прошлого ( обычно указано время).

Shakespeare wrote this play.

4. Мгновенное действие в прошлом.

She passed her exams last week.

Yesterday, last week, ago, then, just now, in 1999, when

 

PAST CONTINUOUS

 

I/he/she/it was working. You/we/they were working.

I wasn’t working. You weren’t working.

Was he working? Were you working?

 

1. Длительное действие, которое происходило в точно указанный момент. She was riding a bike this time yesterday.

2. Длительное действие в прошлом.

When I saw her she was talking to her friend.

3. Параллельные действия в прошлом.

While the boys were laying the table, the girls were decorating the room.

4. Фон для событий в рассказе.

They were traveling to Swansea…

While, when, as, at that moment, at 5 o’clock yesterday

 

PAST PERFECT

 

I had worked.

I hadn’t worked.

Had I worked?

 

1. Действие, которое завершилось к определенному моменту в прошлом. I had spent all the money by that time.

2. Предшествующее действие в прошлом.

He was delighted because had found a new job.

For, since, already, after, just, never, yet, before, by, by the time

 

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

 

I had been working.

I hadn’t been working.

Had you been working?

 

  1. Длительное действие, которое длилось до определенного момента в прошлом.

She had been trying to get a visa for months before she gave up.

  1. Длительное действие, которое имело видимые результаты в прошлом.

Her fingers hurt because she had been playing the guitar all day.

For, since

  

FUTURE SIMPLE

 

I will work.

I won’t work.

Will you work?

 

  1. Будущее действие, решение принимается в момент речи.

It’s cold here. I’ll turn on the heating.

  1. Опасения, страхи, комментарии, надежды.

I am sure he will come.

  1. Предположения.

She’ll probably win,

  1. События, которые произойдут независимо от нашего желания.

The baby will be born after Christmas.

Tomorrow, tonight, next week, in two days, the day after tomorrow, soon


FUTURE CONTINUOUS

 

I will be working.

I won’t be working.

Will you be working?

1. Длительное действие, которое будет происходить в точно указанный момент.

2. Действие, результат повседневной рутины

3. Если мы вежливо спрашиваем о планах людей


FUTURE PERFECT

 

I will have worked.

I won’t have worked.

Will you have worked?

1. Действие, которое закончится к определенному моменту

2. Предшествующее действие в будущем

Before, by, by then, by the time

 

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

 

I will have been working.

I won’t have been working.

Will you have been working?

 

1.Действие, которое будет длиться до определенного момента в будущем.

By, for

 

BE GOING TO

 

I am going to work. You/we/they are going to work. He/she/it is going to work.

I’m not going to work. You aren’t going to work. He isn’t going to work.

Am I going to work? Are you going to work? Is he going to work?

 

1. Запланированное действие в будущем

2. Действие, которое должно неизбежно произойди в будущем

 

 

 

 

02.09.2022  Topics for discussion

подробнее...

Choosing the right career to follow is probably one of the most important decisions you will ever make. Before you make this decision you will have to do a lot of thinking about who you are, about the things you like to do and the things you do well. Practically all careers involve working with people, information, and things and many allow some creativity. Or you may consider government service suitable for you. It means that when choosing a future career you must be realistic about your interests and abilities. Good education is also very important. It goes without saying that when choosing a career you should take into account future employment, good and steady wages, good working conditions and so on.

As for me I want to become an economist. There are some reasons why this profession sounds interesting for me. First of all my favorite subject at school was mathematics. My teachers well-educated people with deep knowledge of the subject, encouraged me to become an economist. And of course my parents approve of this decision. It is very important for a good economist to be a user of computer and to speak at least one foreign language. So I pay much attention to these subjects. If I pass my entrance exams successfully and enter the University, I will do my best to learn this profession a justify the hopes of my parents. I also hope that I will never regret my choice and get an interesting job afterwards. I also understand that it is a hard job, it requires skill, experience and commitments as well as accuracy and attention.

Everybody remembers his school all his life. I am not going to be an exception. I attend Drogichin Gymnasium. My school is a three-storied building of a typical design. In front of my school there are many flower-beds and some trees. Behind it there is a stadium.

Our gymnasium offers excellent facilities, high teaching standards and a friendly atmosphere. We have a library with thousands of books, reference books and multimedia computers. Here we can do our home work, search for information on the internet and relax. There is also a language laboratory, where you can practice foreign languages and get help from experienced teachers. There are chemistry and physics laboratories where we conduct experiments. There are two gyms, a swimming pool and a sports ground. We have our classes in Physical Training there and spend much time after the lessons. Most of us have lunches in our school canteen. The lunches are freshly cooked and not very expensive.

There is also a school Assembly hall on the first floor. Here the schoolchildren hold their meetings and parties.

All state schools in Belarus are free, and schools provide their pupils with books and equipment for their studies. Children start primary school at the age of 6 and continue until they are 10. At primary school children become acquainted with reading, writing, and arithmetic and develop their creative abilities; they are taught to sing, dance, play, and draw. Primary school children do all their work with the same class teacher, except for physical training and music, which are often taught by specialists. Most children are taught together, boys and girls in the same class.

   At 10 most pupils go to secondary schools, which   accept a wide range of children from all backgrounds. At the age of 15 pupils take a national exam and then they can leave school if they wish. This is the end of compulsory education. At the age of 16, when pupils finish the 9th form, they can either leave school or continue their education for another two years. Most schools in Belarus are secondary comprehensive but there are lyceums and gymnasiums, where pupils get more profound knowledge in various subjects.

Pupils need secondary education to enter a university.    

Students study for a degree, which takes on average four or five years of full-time study. Most students graduate at 21 and are given their degree at a special graduation   ceremony.

Christmas is a time when families reunite, express gratitude and feel closer to one another than at any other time. Millions of people across the country travel to visit their nearest and dearest on that day. In our family, we all try to come together at my grandparents’ house on that day. The first thing would be a big family dining table – big enough for all of us, plus relatives and friends. It’s where we celebrate small things such as an “A” in arithmetic and important things like a promotion at work or a college degree; where we soothe one another’s hurts; and quiet our worries. And it’s where we share our dreams, because when families share their dreams, everyone joins in to make them come true, and miracles spread out from family dining tables like magic. This our family tradition. We talk about everything that is going on in our lives and get ready for the big dinner. There four aspects of celebrating Christmas. Going to church, decorating houses, giving and getting presents and eating. And of course everyone, even kids, is included in the food preparation. When I was younger, I loved decorating cookies together with my cousins! Then sometime in the afternoon, when the chicken is juicy and golden brown and ready to be carved, the dinner table is set. It’s the time everyone has been looking forward to. Loads of food is served as well: mashed potatoes with gravy, meat, fish and various kinds of salads. After dinner, we may go for a walk, and share family stories, some of them are funny and some are sad. So the evening is filled with laughter and sometimes tears.

 Home is a very important place for everyone. We live there, spend our time, receive guests. So, home is an integral part in our life. And it doesn’t really matter whether it is large or small, modern or old – but it always remains the place I’m most concerned about.

The English people say: “ My home is my castle” And it’s really so. Home is the place, where you can have a rest, where you feel comfortable and safe.

There are many types of houses where people can live in detached houses , semi-detached houses - joined to one other house, block of flats, terraced houses, cottages, etc.  

I’d like to tell you about house of my dream. My dream is a detached house, I dream about a small garden with flowers. I’d also like to have a swimming-pool. I like to receive guests,   that’s why I want to have a yard where we’d can rest and spend a good time.

A detached house has a lot of advantages: It provides a good level of privacy. As you have some land around the house you can build outhouses; and if I lived in a detached house I would certainly build a garage, and   arrange some flowerbeds as I adore flowers.

Families are important for everyone. Families give us a sense of belonging and a sense of tradition, families give us strength and purpose. The things we need most deeply in our lives - love, communication, respect and good relationship have their beginning in the family. Families serve many functions. They provide conditions in which children are born and brought up. Parents teach their children manners, daily skills and values. Common practices and traditions, such as celebrating holidays. But the most important job for a family is to give emotional support and security.

Now I am going to speak about my family. It is not very large. We are four: my father, my mother, my brother and I.

I would like to begin with my father. His name is … . He is in his mid forties. He is tall rather thin, with fair hair and beautiful dark blue eyes. My father is a very cheerful man. He is fond of reading and knows a lot. When I was small I used to ask him different questions and my father always answered them. We spent a lot of time together and my father told me a lot of interesting things. He is a driver by profession. Usually he comes home at about 7. He is rather tired and spends the evenings at home. Generally speaking my father and me are very similar in character though in appearance I take after my mother.

My mother’s name is … . She is two years younger than my father. She is a very attractive, self-possessed, sociable and persistent woman. She is a very beautiful woman. Everybody admits it. My mother is not very tall with dark brown hair and blue eyes. My mother is a bookkeeper. She is fond of her work and spends much time there. We understand that our mother is a very busy and try to help her about her about the house.

Now it is time to say a few words about my brother. His name is … . He is 12. He is a handsome boy, he looks like his father. He is a pupil and studies well. He is good at mathematics and history. He goes in for athletics and is crazy about computers. The only thing I don’t like about him that it’s impossible to make him keep things in their places.

That is almost all about my family. I must add some words about myself. I have finished school this year. At school I was good at mathematics, literature and history. I am fond of music and reading.

Our family is very united. We are different in our tastes and hobbies. But we have much in common and respect each other. We can spend hours and hours   talking about our family problems, fashions, views on education, people's relations, their ambitions and the like.

People often talk about a generation gap. But if parents and children argue they argue about simple things. The most common reason for their argument is the teenagers’ attitude towards other family members. One more reason is that parents want their children to help more about the house. The third reason is the quality of children’s work at school. Some other reasons are the friends with whom children spend their free time.   Families should work together to solve these problems.

However there exist more serious problems such as unemployment alcohol and poor family relationships bad neighborhood conditions. Some children try to escape the reality and turn to alcohol, drugs and crime.

Education. All state schools in Belarus are free, and schools provide their pupils with books and equipment for their studies. Children start primary school at the age of 6 and continue until they are 10. At primary school children become acquainted with reading, writing, and arithmetic and develop their creative abilities; they are taught to sing, dance, play, and draw. Primary school children do all their work with the same class teacher, except for physical training and music, which are often taught by specialists. Most children are taught together, boys and girls in the same class.

At 10 most pupils go to secondary schools, which   accept a wide range of children from all backgrounds. At the age of 15 pupils take a national exam and then they can leave school if they wish. This is the end of compulsory education. At the age of 16, when pupils finish the 9th form, they can either leave school or continue their education for another two years. Most schools in Belarus are secondary comprehensive but there are lyceums and gymnasiums, where pupils get more profound knowledge in various subjects.

Pupils need secondary education to enter a university.    

Students study for a degree, which takes on average four or five years of full-time study. Most students graduate at 21 and are given their degree at a special graduation   ceremony.

Everybody remembers his school all his life. I am not going to be an exception. I attend Drogichin Gymnasium . My school is a three-storied building of a typical design. In front of my school there are many flower-beds and some trees. Behind it there is a stadium.

Our gymnasium offers excellent facilities, high teaching standards and a friendly atmosphere. We have a library with thousands of books, reference books and multimedia computers. Here we can do our home work, search for information on the internet and relax. There is also a language laboratory, where you can practice foreign languages and get help from experienced teachers. There are chemistry and physics laboratories where we conduct experiments. There are two gyms, a swimming pool and a sports ground. We have our classes in Physical Training there and spend much time after the lessons. Most of us have lunches in our school canteen. The lunches are freshly cooked and not very expensive.

There is also a school Assembly hall on the first floor. Here the schoolchildren hold their meetings and parties.


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